Clary sage concrete (Extracta Salvia Sclarea)

The origin of lavender essential oil:

Although lavender is native to Mediterranean countries, it can be found growing all over the world. In fact, Bulgaria is known to be the world's largest producer of lavender today.

Bulgarian clary sage concrete is mostly used for extraction of its main component - Sclareol, which represents an average of about 75% of the composition.

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Short summary description of the oil:

  • Categories/Mainstream: Concrete
  • Scientific Name: Salvia sclarea L.
  • Botanical Source: Clary sage
  • Production Method: extraction
  • CAS number: 8016-63-5
  • ScentIt: Strong, dense scent reminiscent of amber
  • Country of origin: Bulgaria

The origin of clary sage concrete

Salvia sclarea, also known as Clary Sage, is a perennial herb native to the Mediterranean region and certain parts of Central Asia. The plant belongs to the Lamiaceae family, which includes many aromatic herbs like mint, lavender, and rosemary. Salvia sclarea has been cultivated for centuries for its various uses, including medicinal, culinary, and aromatic purposes.

The origins of Salvia sclarea cultivation can be traced back to ancient times. Historically, it has been highly regarded for its medicinal properties, particularly for its ability to relieve respiratory issues, digestive problems, and menstrual discomfort. Additionally, it has been used in traditional folk medicine for its calming and soothing effects on the nervous system.

Bulgarian Salvia sclarea is a versatile and valuable plant with a long history of use, prized for its medicinal, aromatic, and culinary properties. Its cultivation and utilization continue to be an important tradition in Bulgaria and other regions where it is grown.


Extraction method

The inflorescences and herb of the sage are ground and subjected to extraction with a non-polar solvent. The resulting intermediate product is filtered three times and purified from the residual solvent. The final product consists primarily of sclareol, which represents at least 50% of its chemical composition. The product is packaged in Plastic drums with food contact status.


Certification and standardisation

  • Produced according to ISO 9001:2015 and GMP of cosmetic regulations.

Properties

The focus on the effects of the product is specifically directed towards the main component - Sclareol, which represents an average of about 75% of the composition, with a minimum of no less than 60%. Other ingredients, such as linalool and linalyl acetate, are part of the composition and exhibit antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects, but the emphasis in this reference on the potential impact of the product is centered on sclareol.

Anty cancer effect

Sclareol (SCL) demonstrates extensive anticancer actions, including inhibition of cell proliferation, apoptosis, and cell cycle arrest. It is effective against various types of cancer cells, such as lung cancer, colorectal cancer, and breast cancer (Paradisis et al., 2007). Studies show that SCL induces apoptosis and halts the cell cycle in cancer cells by activating various caspases and damaging DNA (Dimas et al., 1999). Additionally, SCL also enhances the sensitivity of cancer cells to various anticancer agents (Noori et al., 2013).

The labdane diterpene sclareol has demonstrated significant cytotoxicity against human tumor cell lines and human colon cancer xenografts. Therefore, there is a need to elucidate the mode of action of this compound, as very little information is known for the anticancer activity of sclareol and other labdane diterpenes, in general. COMPARE analysis of GI50 values for several human cancer cell lines was initially implicated to assign a putative mechanism of action to the compound. Sclareol-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis were assessed by flow cytometry and Western blot analyses (Mahaira et, al., 2011)

Liposome-incorporated sclareol was developed to overcome its water insolubility and to formulate suitable formulations for in vivo application. The bioactive labdane-type diterpene sclareol was encapsulated in liposomes prepared by the thin-film hydration method, and the molar ratio between egg phosphatidylcholine, dipalmitoyl phosphatidylglycerol, and sclareol was characterized. In vitro drug release studies showed that liposomes containing sclareol at a drug-to-lipid molar ratio of 0.43 exhibited a reduction in the growth rate of human colon tumors (HCT116) developed in SCID mice, without significant side effects (Hatziantoniou et. al., 2005).

Small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC). Cell viability was determined by MTT analysis. Cell cycle, apoptosis, and caspase activity were assessed by flow cytometry. Expression of cell cycle-related proteins and DNA damage were determined by Western blotting. In vivo evaluation of sclareol was conducted in xenotransplanted mouse tumor models. Sclareol significantly reduced cell viability, induced G1 phase arrest, and subsequently triggered apoptosis in H1688 cells. Additionally, this sclareol-induced growth arrest was associated with DNA damage, as indicated by phosphorylation of H2AX, activation of ATR, and Chk1. Furthermore, in vivo evaluation of sclareol showed that it could inhibit tumor weight and volume in the H1688 xenotransplantation model. Sclareol may be a novel and effective therapeutic agent for treating patients with SCLC. (Hsiang Lai Chen et. al., 2020)

Another study investigated the impact of sclareol on human leukemic cell lines. The compound showed an IC50 lower than 20 μg/ml in most tested cell lines, while it was higher for peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes (PBML) at rest. Additionally, the compound was tested for cytostatic activity against four of the leukemic cell lines used. At a concentration of 20 μg/ml, the compound exhibited significant cytostatic effects immediately after 4 hours of extended incubation against two B and two T cell lines. The morphology and type of cell death induced by sclareol in three cell lines were also examined. The effect of sclareol on the progression of the cell cycle in two cell lines was investigated using flow cytometry. The results indicate that sclareol kills cell lines through the process of apoptosis. The appearance of apoptotic signs depends on time and dose. From the flow cytometry experiments, it appears that there is a delay in the G0/1 cell population. This is the first report that a labdane-type diterpene kills tumor cells through a phase-specific mechanism that induces apoptosis (Kostas Dimas et. al., 1999).

Anti-inflammatory effects

The anti-inflammatory effects through the regulation of NF-κB, nitric oxide (NO), and the arachidonic acid metabolic pathway, including andrographolide, andrographolide, and others, have been reported (Tran et al., 2017). Sclareol, as part of the labdane diterpene family, significantly attenuates inflammation by inhibiting NF-κB translocation and MAPK phosphorylation in a mouse model of atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions induced by 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene, leading to decreased levels of local pro-inflammatory cytokines and inhibition of T cell activation and cytokine production (Wu et al., 2019). Moreover, Sclareol suppresses LPS-induced lung injury in mice by interfering with NF-κB, MAPKs, and HO-1 signaling transductions (Hsieh et al., 2017).

Additionally, treatment with Sclareol delays the severity of arthritis in a mouse model of rheumatoid arthritis by regulating inflammatory cytokines and the population of Th17 and Th1 cells. In vitro, Sclareol reduces IL-1β-induced expression of MMP-1, TNF-α, and IL-6 in SW982 cells by attenuating NF-κB translocation and p38 MAPK/ERK/JNK pathways (Tsai et al., 2018).

Synthesis of AMBROX

Ambrox , one of the most important ambergris fragrances discovered by Hinder and Stoll in 1950, continues to be one of the most significant ingredients in the perfume industry. It is still produced through technological degradation with a high yield from natural sclareol, the primary source of which is clary sage (Salvia sclarea L.).


Main chemical constituents:

Sclareol

abdane-type diterpene compound that exhibits significant cytotoxicity against various cancer cell lines. It is derived from natural sources such as clary sage and is known for its potential anticancer activity through multiple signaling pathways. Research indicates that sclareol induces cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and inhibits tumor growth both in vitro and in vivo.

 


 

Physicochemical characteristics

Indicators: Characteristics and norms:
Appearance Greenish-brown wax-like mass.
Odor Strong, dense scent reminiscent of amber
Content of sclareol, % more than 50,0 %