The origin of rose essential oil:

Considered the queen of flowers, the rose undeniably provides the richest composition of essential oils. Bulgaria, as a leading producer of rose oil, is a cornerstone in the quality of this product.

Bulgarian rose oil is national symbol of excellence and uniqueness, a scent of long date tradition and highest quality


Short summary description of the oil

  • Categories/Mainstream: Essential oils
  • Scientific Name: Rosa damascena
  • Botanical Source: Rosa damascena
  • Extraction Method: Water-steam distillation
  • H.S code : 33012942
  • Alternative CAS number:  90106-38-0
  • EC number: 290‐260‐3
  • Scent: rich, deep, and floral aroma with sweet and slightly spicy undertones
  • Country of origin: Bulgaria

The origin of rose essential oil

Considered the queen of flowers, the rose undeniably provides the richest composition of essential oils. Bulgaria, as a leading producer of rose oil, is a cornerstone in the quality of this product.

Technological process

Rose blossoms are harvested early in the morning, transported to processing centers, and subjected to steam distillation. The obtained distillation waters are redistilled, and the resulting concentrated intermediate product undergoes separation. The obtained essential rose oil is filtered and blended in two main directions - gas chromatography and aromatic profile.

Certification and standartisation

  • Organic product certification
  • Produced according to ISO 9001:2015 and GMP of cosmetic regulations.
  • Produced according to FSSC 22000 – food ingredient.
  • Produced according to PGI (Protected geographic identification)


Rose essential oil is a widely applicable ingredient in high-end perfumery. The essential oil represents a naturally crafted perfume composition, encompassing top, middle, and base notes. Essential oil finds application in Eastern culture as a dietary supplement in the form of gelatin capsules.

Antimicrobial effect

The possibility of using essential oil as an antimicrobial agent is explored in several studies. The substances composing it, as well as the essential oil itself, exhibit this effect against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, as well as against molds and yeast (Basim et al., 2003).

Rose oil has been proven to counteract one of the most unpleasant and widespread infections caused by the bacterium Propionibacterium acnes, responsible for acne, affecting around 80% of individuals between the ages of 12 and 24. The cited study (Jappe et al., 2003) demonstrated the strong inhibitory properties of rose oil.

Antiviral effect

The essential oil of Rosa Damascena contains components with proven antiviral properties. Major constituents such as nerol, citral, citronellal, citronellol, geraniol, and eugenol exhibit active antiviral effects against herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) and parainfluenza virus type-3 (PI-3) (Rajbhandari et al., 2007). Specifically, acyclic terpenoids citronellol and eugenol show significant activity against the influenza virus after just 10 minutes of exposure.

Central Nervous System (CNS)

Numerous studies present new possibilities for the use of rose essential oil as a neuropharmacological agent. Rose oil offers the potential to impact sexual dysfunction. A study has revealed an increase in sexual desire and libido in both male and female participants, as well as an enhancement of the desire for sexual activity in women (Farnia et al., 2015).
Furthermore, rose oil elevated the secretion of dopamine and norepinephrine in the substantia nigra.

Studies exploring the anti-stress activity of rose oil are not lacking, and inhaling the natural product demonstrates a positive effect in this regard (Fukada et al., 2011). Additionally, essential oil may exert a positive antidepressant effect, as evidenced by research conducted on mice subjected to chronic stress. The study encompassed both oral intake and intervention through inhalation. As a result, positive effects were observed from both applications of the essential oil, with inhalation having a stronger impact (Nazıroğlu et. al., 2013).

Possible effects on short-term memory are suggested. A similar study was conducted among students, demonstrating the potential for improvement in the ability to perceive and memorize information through inhalation of rose oil (Elif Ok et. al., 2020).

Rose oil could induce physical and mental relaxation. In the study conducted by (Igarashi et al. 2014), participants were exposed to a brief inhalation of air enriched with pink oil. The results indicate an increase in the sense of relaxation.

Treatment of Respiratory Tract Diseases

Professor Nikolov's studies on the oil-bearing rose Rosa damascena are exceptionally comprehensive. Based on this research, a range of individual and combined preparations is proposed, with anti-inflammatory, laxative, and anti-helminthic effects. Using rose oil as a base, Peter Nikolov offers the preparation Oleum Rose Camphoratum in ampoules, which proves to be particularly valuable for treating bronchial asthma. With the same indications, he recommends the preparations Rosalipchin, Rosasulfolipchin, which are based on Lipchin (an ampoule of oil-based quinine solution, to which rose oil and sulfur are respectively added), Rosalin, Pulvis rose laxans, and others.

Analgetic effect

The possibilities in reducing pain are attributed to the potential stimulation of the olfactory system, increased parasympathetic activity, release of neurotransmitters such as enkephalin and endorphin, as well as decreased sympathetic activity and the release of cortisol and norepinephrine (Mohebitabar et al., 2017). Rose oil can be utilized through both inhalation and local application. In this regard, several studies have demonstrated a reduction in pain associated with renal colic (Ayan et al., 2012).

Main chemical constituents:


Monoterpene hydrocarbon possessing antimicrobial, antiplatelet, antispasmodic properties, and is believed to possess anti-inflammatory effects.


One of the most commonly encountered aromatic compounds in perfume compositions possesses antimicrobial, antiplatelet, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory properties, and contributes to the relaxation of smooth musculature.


Substance responsible for the floral and fresh scent of essential rose oil, possessing the ability to protect cells from free radicals in the human body and induce relaxation.


Aromatic hydrocarbon has the ability to act as an analgesic and antiseptic, as well as to have a relaxing effect on smooth musculature.

Main properties and usage

  • Aromatherapy: to reduce stress and anxiety, and improve mood and emotional well-being
  • Wellness: to promote relaxation and ease tension
  • Ayurvedic: for its calming and balancing properties
  • Skincare: thanks to its hydrating and anti-aging properties can be used in skincare products like moisturizers, serums, and lotions 
  • Haircare: can be incorporated I haircare routine for promoting healthy hair and scalp
  • Perfume: can be used to create a signature fragrance
  • Pharmaceuticals: can be used for its potential medicinal properties, such as anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects
  • Libido booster: can help men with sexual dysfunction related to performance anxiety and stress and balance sex hormones
  • Natural cleaning: can be added to air fresheners and cleaning products to impact a pleasant scent
  • Soap making: for its fragrance and potential skin benefits
  • Food and beverages: can be used as a floral note to various products like teas, chocolates, and desserts
  • Floral arrangements: can be used from floral designers to enhance the natural fragrance of flower arrangements
  • Luxury candles: can be incorporated in candle making for its opulent fragrance

Physicochemical characteristics

Indicators Characteristics and norms
Appearance Fluid transparent liquid above the congealing point
Color Pale Yellow
Odor Tpical of Bulgarian Rose oil
Relative density, kg/dm3 0,848 – 0,880
Refraction index 1.452 – 1.470
Specific optical rotation Form – 5 0 to – 1.8 0


Name of components - GC – MS/ FID: Norm,%:
Ethanol ≤2%
Citronellol 25,0 - 34,0
Nerol 5 – 12
Geraniol 15 -22
Phenyl alcohol ≤3.5
C17 (heptadecane) 1,0 ÷ 2,5
C19 (nonadecane) 8,0 ÷ 15,0
C21 (heneicosan) 3,0 ÷ 5,5