PINUS SYLVESTRIS ESSENTIAL OIL

The origin of Pinus Sylvestris essential oil:

Pinus sylvestris, commonly known as Scots Pine or Scotch Pine, is a species of pine tree native to Europe. The essential oil derived from the needles of Pinus sylvestris is known as Scots Pine essential oil.

Bulgarian Pinus sylvestris is commonly known as Scots Pine essential oil shows antimicrobial activities, making it potential food antimicrobial preservative.

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Short summary description of the oil

  • Categories/Mainstream: Essential oils
  • Scientific Name: Pinus sylvestris
  • Botanical Source: Pinus sylvestris
  • Extraction Method: steam distillation
  • H.S code : 33012949
  • CAS number: 90082-74-9
  • EC number: 290-165-7
  • Scent: fresh, woody, turpentine - like, sweet resinous, fresh, pine evergreen scent.
  • Country of origin: Bulgaria

The origin of Pinus Sylvestris essential oil

Pinus sylvestris, commonly known as Scots Pine or Scotch Pine, is a species of pine tree native to Europe. The essential oil derived from the needles of Pinus sylvestris is known as Scots Pine essential oil.


Extraction Method

Essential oil is deposited in resin channels and can be found in all parts of the plant, with the highest concentration in the needles and thin branches up to 25 mm. The collected tops are ground and subjected to steam distillation. After obtaining the essential oil, it is dehydrated and double-filtered before being packaged in containers standardized for food purposes.


Certification and standartisation

  • Organic product certification
  • Produced according to ISO 9001:2015 and GMP of cosmetic regulations.
  • Produced according to FSSC 22000 – food ingredient.
  • Produced according to ICH Q7 – Active pharmaceutical ingredient.

Properties

Antimicrobial and Antiviral Properties:

Moreira et al. (2005) found that essential oils (EO) from pines exhibit antimicrobial activities, making them potential food antimicrobial preservatives. Bhalla et al. (2013) suggested that essential oils have constituents with the potential to enhance white blood cell activity, contributing to the removal of foreign materials and microbes in the body.

Terpenoids in Pine Essential Oils

Terpenoids, major components of pine essential oils, possess diverse properties such as antimicrobial, antifungal, antiparasitic, antiviral, anti-allergenic, antispasmodic, antihyperglycemic, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory effects (Theis and Lerdau 2003; Medeiros Leite et al. 2007). Terpenoids can also act as natural insecticides and find applications in storing agricultural products. Terpenoids have been identified as valuable in the prevention and therapy of various diseases, including cancer (Paduch et al. 2007). Incorporating essential oils containing terpenoids into a polymer matrix enhances the wound-healing mechanism.

Anty cancer

This extract from pine needles demonstrates a strong cytotoxic effect on several human breast cancer cell lines. It exhibits selectivity towards estrogen receptor-negative cells (MDA-MB-231) compared to estrogen receptor-positive cells (MCF-7). The most impressive cytotoxic effect is observed in MDA-MB-231 (IC50 35 μg/ml), which is stronger than in MCF-7 (IC50 86 μg/ml). This is the first study comparing the anticancer effects of pine extracts on molecularly different human breast cancer cells. The essential oil shows a stronger cytotoxic effect compared to the pine extract in both types of breast cancer cells (IC50 29 μg/ml), in contrast to the pine extract (IC50 42 and 80 μg/ml, respectively). (Nguyen et. al., 2015)

Antioxidant activity

The essential oil of white pine possesses an impressive antioxidant effect that can prevent the movement and presence of free radicals on fatty acids, both in food products and in the human body. There is information suggesting that the antioxidant activity of the essential oil is similar to ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) (Isaac et. al., 2022).

Oder health benefits

Some studies have shown anti-inflammatory characteristics of white pine oil, which may be beneficial in certain inflammatory conditions (Source: Shannon et al., 2003. "Antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of essential oils from six species of conifers"). White pine essential oil contains components that may be associated with stress and tension relief (Source: Moss et al., 2003. "Aromas of rosemary and lavender essential oils differentially affect cognition and mood in healthy adults"). White pine oil may be beneficial for respiratory issues due to its antiseptic properties, improving respiratory function (Source: Fisher, C., 2009. "Commonwealth Pharmacists Association B.C. Book Review: Clinical Aromatherapy Essential Oils in Practice").


Main chemical constituents:

α-pinene

Natural organic compound found associated with potential health benefits, such as anti-inflammatory and bronchodilator properties. Research also suggests its antimicrobial, cognitive, analgesic, antioxidant, and potential anti-cancer effects, though further studies are needed for a comprehensive understanding.

Limonene

Offers potential health benefits such as anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. It is also being researched for its possible roles in stress relief, gastrointestinal health, and even anti-cancer effects, making it of interest in various aspects of wellness.

β-myrcene

Potentially anti-inflammatory properties that can be used in arthritis, as it also possesses analgesic effects.

3-carene

Anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties, potentially aiding joint health and combating infections. Traditionally used for respiratory conditions, 3-carene-rich oils could support respiratory health. Additionally, its aromatic qualities make it popular in aromatherapy, with mood-enhancing and stress-relieving effects.


Main properties and usage‚Äč

  • Aromatherapy: proven for creating a refreshing and energizing atmosphere
  • Meditation: due to its grounding and calming properties
  • Respiratory health: can help clear congestion, relieve coughs and ease breathing difficulties
  • Anti-inflammatory support: powerful anti-inflammatory properties that can be helpful in alleviating muscle and joint pain
  • Natural cleaner: useful for disinfecting surfaces and minor wounds
  • Stress reduction: calming and uplifting effect on the mind, helping to reduce stress and anxiety
  • Skin care: diluted in a carrier oil can soothe skin conditions like eczema and psoriasis
  • Hair care: as a scalp treatment to improve the health of the hair, the scalp and reduce dandruff 
  • Wellness: in massages for relax and soothe muscles
  • Room fragrances: invigorating the fresh and forest-like ambiance
  • Fuelwood and biomass: can be used as a source of firewood and biomass for heating and energy production

Physicochemical characteristics

Indicators Characteristics and norms
Appearance clear, colorless, or pale-yellow liquid.
Odor Characteristic odor.
Identification, TLC To pass the tests
Relative density 0,855 ÷ 0,875
Refractive index 1,465 ÷ 1,480
Optical rotation −9.0° ÷ −30.0°
Peroxide value Maximum 20,0
Fatty oils and resinified oils to pass the test

 

Name of components - GC – MS/ FID Norm,%
α-Pinene 32 -60
Camphene 0.5-2
Beta Pinene 5 – 22
3-Carene 6 - 18
β Myrcene 1.5 – 10
Limonene 7 – 12
β–Phellandrene ≤ 2.5
P - cymene ≤ 2
Terpinolene ≤ 4
Bornyl acetate 1 – 4
β–Caryophyllene 1 – 6