CORIANDER SEED ESSENTIAL OIL

The origin of coriander essential oil

Coriander seed essential oil is derived from the seeds of the coriander plant, scientifically known as Coriandrum Sativum. It is extensively cultivated and utilized for both culinary and medicinal purposes.

Bulgarian coriander seeds oil is gaining prominence as a therapeutic powerhouse, offering a natural and low-toxicity alternative for the treatment and prevention of various diseases

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Short summary description of the oil:

  • Categories/Mainstream: Essential oils
  • Scientific Name: Coriandrum sativum
  • Botanical Source: Coriandrum sativum L. (Apiaceae) 
  • Extraction Method: steam distillation
  • CAS number: 8008-52-4
  • EC number: 616-923-2
  • Scent: sweet, spicy, and slightly woody 
  • Country of origin: Bulgaria

The origin of coriander essential oil 

Coriander seed essential oil is derived from the seeds of the coriander plant, scientifically known as Coriandrum Sativum. It is extensively cultivated and utilized for both culinary and medicinal purposes.


Technological process:

The matured seeds of coriander are grounded. The well-crushed raw material undergoes steam distillation, through which the essential oil is obtained. The resulting product undergoes a two-step filtration and it is blended according to a pre-defined gas chromatographic formulation.


Certification and standardisation 

  • It is produced according to ISO 9001:2015 and GMP of cosmetic regulations.
  • It is produced according to FSSC 22000 – food ingredient.
  • The specification is according to Ph. Eur. monography.

Properties

Coriander seeds Oil: Unlocking Therapeutic Potential

Currently, coriander seeds oil is gaining prominence as a therapeutic powerhouse, offering a natural and low-toxicity alternative for the treatment and prevention of various diseases. The pharmacological potential of this essential oil has been underscored by its rich composition and diverse biological activities (Gautam & Jachak, 2009; Thomford et al., 2018).

Diverse Chemical Composition:

Coriander seeds oil, derived from Coriandrum sativum L., stands out for its complex composition, dominated by terpenes and phenylpropanoids. This essential oil, a staple in natural medicine and industries like food and cosmetics, shows a remarkable array of compounds (Bakkali et al., 2008; Reichling et al., 2009).

"The essential oil of Coriandrum sativum contains a variety of bioactive molecules, including linalool, estragole, 1,8-cineole, and eugenol, contributing to its therapeutic versatility" (Marotti et al., 1996).

Health Benefits:

Beyond its culinary use, for the coriander seeds oil, it has been scientifically proven to offer a spectrum of health benefits, making it an valuable asset in alternative medicine. Research indicates its efficacy as antioxidant, antiviral, antimicrobial, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and diuretic properties (Bilal et al., 2012; Bora et al., 2011; Ch et al., 2015).

"Coriander oil, with its potent antioxidant properties, has shown promise in mitigating oxidative stress, a known contributor to various diseases" (Duke, 2001).

Therapeutic Insights:

A comprehensive narrative review was conducted, drawing insights from a meticulous search across electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar (Sant’Anna Ramos Vosgerau & Paulin Romanowski, 2014). Relevant studies from January/2021 to June/2021 were scrutinized to present a consolidated view of the therapeutic potential of coriander seeds oil.

"Studies highlight coriander seeds oil's role in the food industry as an antioxidant in meat and dairy products, antibacterial in sausages, and antifungal in various applications" (Falowo et al., 2019; Gaio et al., 2015; Kocić-Tanackov et al., 2020; Licon et al., 2020).

Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Excellence:

Coriander oil has emerged as a frontrunner in the quest for natural anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agents. It shows inhibitory effects on inflammatory pathways and displays antioxidant activity, making it a potential candidate for preventing and treating various diseases (Araújo Couto et al., 2019; Pandey et al., 2016).

"Research findings suggest that coriander seeds oil's antioxidant activity is linked to its eugenol content, showcasing its potential in protecting against oxidative damage" (Ahmed et al., 2019).

Antimicrobial Marvel:

In the battle against infections, coriander seeds oil has proven to be a formidable ally. Studies confirm its efficacy against a range of bacteria, yeasts, and fungi, positioning it as a potential alternative to commercial antibiotics (Beatović et al., 2015; Opalchenova & Obreshkova, 2003).

"Coriander seeds oil's antimicrobial activity may be attributed to the synergistic action of its constituents, potentially hindering the emergence of bacterial resistance" (Jugreet & Mahomoodally, 2020; Yap et al., 2014).

Antiviral Potency:

The antiviral potential of coriander seeds oil adds another layer to its therapeutic repertoire. Studies indicate its effectiveness against a variety of viral infections, including respiratory and liver infections (Chiang et al., 2005; Ryu et al., 1992).

"Coriander seeds oil and its constituents have shown promise in inhibiting viral proteases, opening avenues for potential treatment in viral diseases" (Matondo et al., 2021).

Food ingredient

The primary application of coriander seeds oil in food products is for flavoring, but the fact that it possesses strongly pronounced antimicrobial properties makes it an interesting option. In this study (Burdock et al., 2008), it is clearly demonstrated that its use is not accompanied by unwanted side effects.


Main chemical constituents:

Linalool

the primary component of coriander seeds essential oil that is responsible to its potential anti-anxiety and sedative effects.

 

α-pinene

natural organic compound found associated with potential health benefits, such as anti-inflammatory and bronchodilator properties. Research also suggests its antimicrobial, cognitive, analgesic, antioxidant, and potential anti-cancer effects, though further studies are needed for a comprehensive understanding.

 

Limonene

offers potential health benefits such as anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. It is also being researched for its possible roles in stress relief, gastrointestinal health, and even anti-cancer effects, making it of interest in various aspects of wellness.

γ-terpinene

associated with various potential health effects. Some of these include anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and antioxidant properties, contributing to its potential role in promoting overall well-being.


Main properties and usage

  • Aromatherapy: it can help relieve stress and anxiety, promote relaxation, and improve mood 
  • Antioxidant: protects cells from oxidative stress and damage caused by free radicals
  • Anti-Inflammatory: it can help reduce inflammation 
  • Natural cleaner: thanks to its antibacterial properties 
  • Pain relief: especially for conditions like arthritis or muscle aches
  • Skin care: can help with issues like acne, eczema, fungal infections
  • Digestive aid: it can be used for digestive issues such as indigestion, bloating, gas
  • Improve cholesterol levels: contains dietary fiber, which can help lower cholesterol levels by binding to cholesterol in the digestive tract and preventing its absorption into the bloodstream
  • Decrease blood pressure: contains compounds that may have mild hypotensive effect
  • Hair care: can promote healthy hair and combat dandruff
  • Industrial usage: can be utilized in various industrial applications, such as in the production of soaps, candles, air fresheners
  • Pharmaceuticals: can be used as an ingredient in herbal remedies and supplements aimed at addressing digestive issues
  • Perfumery: can be used in perfumery to create both base and top notes in fragrances
  • Flavoring: can be used as a natural flavoring agent, especially for preparing curries and masalas

Physicochemical characteristics

Indicators Characteristics and norms
Appearance clear, colorless, or pale-yellow liquid
Odor Characteristic odor
Identification, TLC To pass the tests
Relative density 0,860 ÷ 0,880
Refractive index 1,462 ÷ 1,470
Optical rotation +7,0 ° ÷ +13,0 °
Acid value ≤ 3,0

 

Chromatographic profile - GC – MS/ FID Norm,%
Alpha Pinene 3-7
Camphene 0-1
Sabinene -
Beta Pinene 0-1
Myrcene 0.5 – 1.5
P – cymene 0.5 – 4,0
Limonene 1.5 – 5.0
Gama Terpinene 1.5 - 8
Linalool 65,0 – 78,0
Camphor 3-6
Alpha Terpineol 0.1 – 1.5
Geraniol 0.5 – 3.0
Geranyle acetate 0.5 – 4.0