BULGARIAN JUNIPER BERRY ESSENTIAL OIL

The origin of juniper berry essential oil:

The essential oil is obtained from well-ripened fruits of the plant Juniperus Communis, which naturally occur in high-altitude areas in all mountains located on the territory of the Republic of Bulgaria.

Bulgarian juniper berry oil is calming intestinal convulsions, detoxifies the stomach and helping stomach ulcers.

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Short summary description of the oil 

  • Categories/Mainstream: Essential oils
  • Scientific Name: Juniperus communis
  • Botanical Source: Juniperus communis
  • Extraction Method: water-steam distillation
  • H.S code : 33012949
  • CAS number: 8002-68-4; Alternative CAS number: 73049-62-4
  • EC number: 282-007-0
  • Scent: fresh, woody, slightly sweet with a hint of pine and citrus notes
  • Country of origin: Bulgaria

The origin of juniper berry essential oil

The essential oil is obtained from well-ripened fruits of the plant Juniperus Communis, which naturally occur in high-altitude areas in all mountains located on the territory of the Republic of Bulgaria.


Technological process

The pre-ground juniper berries are placed in a distiller, and direct steam is passed through them. The distillation process is carried out for a specific period, after which water is added, and the distillation process is repeated. The obtained distillation waters undergo physical separation, during which the essential oil is extracted. The final product is filtered twice and filled into packaging suitable for food purposes.


Certification and standartisation

  • Organic product certification
  • Produced according to ISO 9001:2015 and GMP of cosmetic regulations.
  • Produced according to FSSC 22000 – food ingredient.
  • Produced according to ICH Q7 – Active pharmaceutical ingredient.

Properties

General Uses

Juniper is utilized for landscaping purposes and is renowned as an ornamental plant with various applications in landscaping [McKeon et. al., 2015]. It aids in the digestion process, calming intestinal convulsions, and detoxifying the stomach, benefiting conditions like stomach ulcers. Ingested juniper is effective against stomach swelling, acidity, intestinal disorders, loss of appetite, worms, bloating, and various gastrointestinal infections. Applied topically, juniper is used to treat skin conditions such as spots, pimples, warts, athlete's foot, and psoriasis. The antimicrobial properties of juniper make it beneficial for skin injuries and snakebites [Glišić et.al., 2007]. Juniper essential oil enhances blood circulation and detoxifies the blood, making it valuable in treating arthritis and gout resulting from circulatory issues [Jarić et. al., 2007]. It acts as a diuretic, promoting regular and increased urination, beneficial for conditions involving excess water and inflammation due to renal failure. Juniper essential oil is also used for weight loss, aiding in the removal of water and fats from the body, contributing to the reduction of blood pressure [Angioni et. al., 2003]. For arthritis, juniper extract is used for massaging to alleviate joint swelling and pain, providing a soothing effect for muscle spasms and cramps. It is utilized in aromatherapy to release stress and anxiety, relaxing the body [Damjanovic et. al., 2003].

Pharmacological Uses

Juniperus communis possesses significant pharmacological activities, particularly in healing skin problems and exhibiting antibiotic, antiseptic, and antimicrobial properties. Its essential oil serves as a potent antioxidant, combating free radicals and showing insulin-like effects against diabetes [De Marino et. al.,2014].

Antioxidant Activity

Juniper communis acts as an antioxidant, scavenging various radicals and inhibiting oxidation reactions in yeast cells. It contains over eighty antioxidant compounds [De Marino et. al.,2014].

Anti-Septic Activity

The essential oil exhibits antiseptic activity, acting as a cleansing agent against fungi and bacteria. It is effective against skin problems and respiratory disorders [Modnicki et. al., 2009].

Anti-Inflammatory Activity

Juniperus communis acts as an anti-inflammatory agent, containing α-pinene, which efficiently retards abnormal cell production and prevents tissue remodelling [Han et. al., 2017].

Anti-Diabetic Activity

Juniper oil enhances insulin sensitivity, improves glucose utilization, and has demonstrated benefits in reducing blood glucose levels. It is considered effective in controlling diabetes and acting as a substitute for insulin in the blood [Orhan et. al., 2012].


Main chemical constituents

α-pinene

natural organic compound found associated with potential health benefits, such as anti-inflammatory and bronchodilator properties. Research also suggests its antimicrobial, cognitive, analgesic, antioxidant, and potential anti-cancer effects, though further studies are needed for a comprehensive understanding.

Limonene

offers potential health benefits such as anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. It is also being researched for its possible roles in stress relief, gastrointestinal health, and even anti-cancer effects, making it of interest in various aspects of wellness.

β-myrcene

potentially anti-inflammatory properties that can be used in arthritis, as it also possesses analgesic effects.

Sabinene

potential health benefits, including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Sabinene may contribute to overall wellness by exhibiting anti-microbial effects, supporting respiratory health, and offering relief from oxidative stress. Additionally, its pleasant aroma makes it a popular choice in aromatherapy, where it is believed to have calming and stress-relieving effects.


Main properties and usage

  • Aromatherapy: a popular choice in aromatherapy thanks to its pleasant scent.
  • Reduces oxidative stress: contains antioxidants that help combat free radicals in the body and potentially reducing oxidative stress and inflammation.
  • Kidney and urinary tract health: due to its diuretic properties, can help promote the elimination of toxins and excess fluids from the body.
  • Respiratory health: help ease respiratory issues, such as congestion, coughs, bronchitis.
  • Muscle and joint pain relief: can relieve muscle aches and joint pain.
  • Skin care: due to its astringent properties can help with oily and acne-prone skin.
  • Mental clarity: thanks to its calming aroma can reduce stress, anxiety and help create a mental clarity.
  • Digestive support: can help stimulate digestive enzymes and make it easier to break down and absorb protein, fats and nutrients from food.
  • Relaxant and sleep aid: the smell offers emotional support and reduce physical and emotional signs of stress.
  • Perfumery and fragrance industry: part of various perfume compositions 
  • Cellulite: It may help to reduce the appearance of cellulite thanks to active components like alpha-pinene, sabinene and juniperene
  • Insect repellent: the scent may naturally repel bugs like mosquitoes.
  • Household cleaner: thanks to its antiseptic and antimicrobial properties to help kill bacteria.
  • Culinary use: can be used to flavor dishes, particularly in European cuisine, 
  • Flavor enhancer: one of the key ingredients for making gin, drinks, bitters, sauces.

 


Physicochemical characteristics

Indicators Characteristics and norms
Appearance Easy mobile, colourless to yellowish liquid
Odor Characteristic
Relative density, kg/dm3 0.857 - 0.876
"Identity Thin-Layer Chromatography" Pass the test
Refractive index 1.471 to 1.483
Optical rotation − 15° to − 0.5°
Peroxide value Max 20
Fatty oils and resinified essential oils Pass the test

 

Name of components - GC – MS/ FID Norm,%
α-Pinene 20 - 50
Sabinene < 20
Beta Pinene 1 - 12
β-Myrcene 1 - 35
α–Phellandrene < 1,0
D-Limonene 2- 12
Terpinene-4-ol 0.5 –10
N – Bornil acetate < 2,0
Caryophyllene < 7,0